Author Archives: mdynie

The First Limb of Ashtanga Yoga: Focus on Non-Stealing

For anyone aspiring to attain the highest level of Ashtanga Yoga (that is, samadhi), one must work his or her way up the proverbial ladder.  Each of the rungs on the ladder can be seen to represent one of the eight limbs of Ashtanga Yoga, and just as one would typically start off at the bottom and take one step at a time to ensure safe and steady progress, the same kind of methodology applies to the yoga practice.  In order to have reasonable assurance of success as you move further up the path, it is critical that you not only gain mastery of the skills comprising the lower limbs of yoga, but continue to exercise them on a daily basis; as Patanjali suggests, “…we should remember that each of the eight limbs is equal to the others and necessary” (The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, Book 2—Sadhana Pada, Sutra 30, p.125).  Due to the nature of the practice, however, those who are dedicated to their practice will find that this is a natural outcome.

Starting with the first two limbs of Ashtanga Yoga—yama (abstention) and niyama (observance)—these dictate how we should comport ourselves throughout our lives; in essence, they form a code of behavior that Patanjali devised, and they reflect the universal moral teachings that most of us learn from a very early age, regardless of our denomination, race or gender.

“The five points of yama, together with the five points of niyama, remind us of the Ten Commandments of the Christian and Jewish faiths, as well as of the ten virtues of Buddhism.  In fact, there is no religion without these moral or ethical codes.  All spiritual life should be based on these things.  They are the foundation stones without which we can never build anything lasting.”
(The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, Book 2—Sadhana Pada, Sutra 32, p.127)

Breaking out these two limbs further, we see that each consists of five governing ideals.  Under the yamas, we find:  ahimsa (non-violence), satya (truthfulness), asteya (non-stealing), brahmacharya (continence), and aparigraha (non-greed).  The niyamas consist of the following:  saucha (purity), santosha (contentment), tapas (accepting pain and not causing pain), svadhyaya (study of spiritual books), and isvara pranidhana (worship of God or self-surrender).

Now, let us explore one of the yamas in particular: that which is called asteya, and which relates to non-stealing.  Patanjali provides a succinct yet insightful look at the result of adopting asteya as one of our guiding principles:

“To one established in non-stealing, all wealth comes.” (The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, Book 2—Sadhana Pada, Sutra 37, p.133)

Patanjali employed dualities to illustrate the meaning of his sutras on several occasions; in this case, he is particularly effective at driving his point across to us.  If we could only see the extent to which we deplete our world of its precious resources, and recognize the disparity between what we take and what we give or return, this could potentially be a catalyst for changing our robbing ways.  It would, at the very least, cause us to become more conscientious about our habits; after all, being aware is the first step towards correcting the problem.

Regarding the problem of stealing from nature, we are all guilty of this action.  The effects of our pillaging are evidenced by the numerous environmental issues that are cropping up all over the planet, some of which have grown large enough to become a global problem.  Among these are global warming, the disappearance of our rain forests, the depletion of the ozone layer, and the pollution and diminution of our oceans and freshwater supplies.  To make matters worse, these problems give rise to a myriad of other complications; these, too, have the potential to grow to mammoth proportions.  One need not be a prophet to imagine the resulting cascading effect if we allow these problems to go untreated; already, we are seeing the repercussions, through climate changes, extinction of animal species, disturbances to the ecosystem balance, agricultural land shortages, and the constant search for new energy sources.

Thanks to the efforts of committed activists, scientists and environmental groups and experts, our nations’ leaders are starting to address these types of problems with due urgency; more and more, the associated correction action initiatives are being placed at the top of the priority lists.  The challenge lies in ensuring that the entire global community is on board for contributing to the effort of rebuilding our world and renewing our natural resources.

“You see that pale, blue dot?  That’s us.  Everything that has ever happened in all of human history has happened on that pixel.  All the triumphs and all the tragedies, all the wars, all the famines, all the major advances…it’s our only home.  And that is what is at stake, our ability to live on planet Earth, to have a future as a civilization.  I believe this is a moral issue, it is your time to seize this issue, it is our time to rise again to secure our future.”
(Al Gore,

Granted, we cannot return what we have already stolen from Earth, nor can we realistically expect to stop taking and consuming its riches; after all, we rely upon them in order to breathe, eat and drink.  Hence, given our reliance upon the earth, a shift in attitude is required to transform our thievery into a less negative action.

To start, we should train ourselves to consume only as much as we need in order to sustain life; this will minimize the drain on our supplies.  Gluttony, over-stocking and hoarding of articles are direct contraventions of this habit, and so we must guard ourselves as much as possible against falling under such temptations.  Furthermore, we should cultivate a sense of gratitude for everything our planet has to offer to us.  Therefore, for every breath of fresh air that we breathe in, every mouthful of food or drink that we swallow, and even every piece of clothing that we wear, we must receive them with an attitude of appreciation.   Such is the direction given by Sri Swami Satchidananda, with respect to these articles of sustenance:

“If we want to become the world’s richest people, this is a very simple way.  There’s no need to get into the stock market or even to go to work.  Just practice non-stealing.  All of us are thieves.  Knowingly and unknowingly, with each breath, we pick nature’s pocket.  Whose air do we breathe?  It is nature’s.  But that doesn’t mean we should stop breathing and die.  Instead, we should receive each breath with reverence and use it to serve others; then we are not stealing.  If we accept it and don’t give anything in return, we are thieves.”
(The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, Book 2—Sadhana Pada, Sutra 37, p.133)

Additionally, it would be of great benefit to ourselves if we spent some extra time savoring our meals and avoid engaging in other activities, such as reading, watching TV, doing paperwork or studying, to name a few.  When we occupy our minds with simultaneous tasks or deeds, we fail to be fully aware of what is happening in the present moment, and consequently, we lose out on part of the experience.  This, in itself, is a form of stealing, since we are cheating ourselves out of an opportunity to learn and grow.

The treatment of our environment illustrates how we, as a society, commonly exert thoughtless and careless behavior, and provides us with some insight into the damage caused by it.  Let us explore how non-stealing can be observed on an individual level, seeing as there are both obvious and subtle ways in which we fail to exercise asteya.

We are taught at an early age not to steal, and by and large, most people are able to adhere willingly to this guiding principle. This applies to both physical objects and the fruits of our labor (that is to say, our original conceived works).  The imposition of laws, copyright and patents serves as a reminder to us all to respect the property and inventions of others.  As such, grand larceny, copyright infringement, and even shoplifting tend to be isolated incidences.

An inflated sense of entitlement can cause us to claim things as rightfully ours for the taking or exploiting; in fact, this false perception is another example of how we fall short of observing asteya.  Consider the example quoted by Sri Swami Satchidananda (The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, Book 2—Sadhana Pada, Sutra 37, p.133) regarding the workplace.  Whenever we use office resources (photocopiers, stationary, internet connection, mail services) for non-work-related affairs, make personal telephone calls, take extended breaks without submitting a claim for approval, or simply waste time, we are effectively robbing our employer. Yet, we continue to take our jobs and all the associated tools for granted; thus, we can only hope that the efforts we put forth whenever we are fully engaged in our work cancel out those unproductive lapses.

How does the concept of non-stealing apply to information exchange and teaching?  Quite often, we “borrow” ideas and concepts from others to build our lesson plans.  In order to ensure that we are not inadvertently pirating someone’s work, we must scrutinize our intentions and how we deliver that information: are we certain that we are just imparting information for the benefit of the students, or are we more interested in gaining some recognition for ourselves?  Have we given due credit to the authors or innovators?  Would the author or innovator approve of the way that we are divulging his or her information?

Take, as an example, one’s yoga teaching practice.  Occasionally, yoga teachers will draw from various traditions in order to build their asana sequences.  In a similar way, a teacher may learn some new and interesting postures—through other teachers or practitioners—and decide to incorporate them into his or her yoga lessons.  Can this action be construed as robbery?  Perhaps, to some small degree, it could be classified as such.  The likelihood that the originator of those borrowed moves would ever find out, or even be upset about it, is relatively remote.  Nonetheless, there are ways that we can somewhat lessen the impact of our actions.  One very simple conciliatory gesture would be to dedicate that particular class to the inventor from which we drew inspiration; in doing so, we are demonstrating gratitude and humility.

Finally, we should always strive to exercise asteya in our daily interactions; this can be achieved by simple means as well.  Within the context of relations, non-stealing can mean reducing our reliance upon our family members and friends.  When we initially enter into this world as babies, our dependency on our mothers is natural, as it is driven by our survival instinct; however, as we grow older, it is sometimes difficult to let go of this inclination towards clinginess.  Ultimately, though, it is a drain of energy for those who are forced—willingly or not—to contend with their dependents.   We need to recognize that, for every minute that we spend occupying someone’s attention, we are, in effect, stealing a minute of that person’s time that can never be regained.  Hence, non-stealing manifests itself as respect and common courtesy.

To conclude, let us recall that true contentment cannot be bought, for in reality, there is nothing in this world that truly belongs to us; the earth’s bounty was intended for all of us to enjoy; therefore, any attempt to amass more than our fair share denies others of their due allocation.  If enough people adopted the same greedy outlooks, our world would eventually become incapable of sustaining all life.  In such a scenario, how could monetary wealth really offer us solace?

“If we are completely free from stealing and greed, contented with what we have, and if we keep serene minds, all wealth comes to us.  If we do not run after it, before long it runs after us.  If nature knows we aren’t greedy, she gains confidence in us, knowing we will never hold her for ourselves.”
(The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, Book 2—Sadhana Pada, Sutra 37, p.133)


Gore, Al, An Inconvenient Truth,, Aug. 31, 2006.
Sri Swami Satchidananda, The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali.  Virginia: Integral Yoga Publications, 1978.

Reflections on 500hr Teacher Training: Life of a Yogi

As I prepare to record my reflections on my LOAY 500 hour teacher training experience, I am at once filled with a sense of nostalgia and wistfulness. To be able to relive those days spent immersing ourselves in the practise would indeed be a great gift; I cannot conceive of ever falling short of new things to learn!

I can clearly recall the gamut of emotions as I read through the Registrar’s acceptance letter: elation and excitement at the forefront, with a twinge of apprehension and self-doubt lurking in the background. Would I, with my limited background in this style of yoga, be able to keep up with my fellow sadhakas, most of whom would have already grown solid roots in the Dharma Yoga tradition, through the LOAY 200 hr TTC program and regular attendance at the yoga center? Nonetheless, it felt like the right time to embark on this training initiative…

From the first moment I ventured into the Dharma West yoga studio, I was in awe. I could see how the term ‘Temple’ came to be chosen; such a strong sense of tranquility and reverence hung in the air, it could never be anything other than a sanctuary. As I stepped inside that first time, I was greeted with such open and welcoming smiles, that I felt immediately right at home. This feeling of belonging and being nurtured prevailed throughout the entire stay, and was elemental in enabling me to develop a deep trust towards my teachers and fellow sadhakas. Their support and encouragement made it much easier for me to share my thoughts and questions, and to be more receptive to feedback; this is often a stumbling block for me, as I am timid by nature, low on self-confidence, and frequently harbour fears of being judged.

That first module exceeded the bounds of my imagination, in terms of the diversity and depth of topics covered, but this also gave rise to very long and demanding days. The addition of more frequent or longer breaks between the sessions would have greatly enhanced our ability to stay focussed and alert, as well as given our bodies more of an opportunity to recover from back-to-back asana practises. Our mentors had given us numerous warnings to pace ourselves; however, in the presence of a guru, the tendency is to offer up one’s best efforts by way of demonstrating devotion, even at the cost of personal comfort. In the end, I think most of my colleagues would agree that the gains far exceeded the pains!

I remember leaving New York City after the January session feeling considerably less confident of my aptitude for completing the program. The feedback that I had received from our small group teaching clinics reflected the insecurities that I was trying hard to keep from adversely affecting me. How, for instance, would my students react to this new class format and teaching style, which employed less verbal cues, hands-on assists and a pronounced spiritual slant (ie: the emphasis on devoting oneself to God)? Would I be able to keep my students engaged if I were to revert back to a more beginner level class that would not change appreciably from week to week? Most importantly, would I be able to let go of my attachment to my usual style of teaching, and embrace the Dharma Yoga style? I wasn’t convinced that I was completely receptive to this changeover yet, and was concerned that this would come across in my teaching as stiffness, unfamiliarity with the practise, and lack of genuine belief in this new style. Fortunately, though, I still had some time to absorb the information and explore my feelings: I expected that I would feel much more secure about this new practise by the end of the next in-class module.

It took even less time than expected. As I worked through the daily practise plans – which encompassed asana, pranayama, japa, dharana, dhyana and journaling – my appreciation for the Dharma Yoga method grew ever stronger. Within a few days, I had already begun to notice improvements on several fronts. The feeling of ease and lightness that had suddenly manifested in my asana practise during Dharma’s master classes did not diminish as I had expected; this phenomenon, I presumed, drew from the collective energy of the Dharma Yogis that permeated the space within the Temple. Furthermore, I noticed a significant increase in my alertness and concentration: for once, I was able to meditate without falling asleep, I was no longer plagued by grogginess at the usual times of day, and I was enjoying a quietness of mind that enabled me to become more self-introspective. These new-found qualities effectuated a calmer demeanour, which was, according to my students, reflected in my teaching.

I believe that these changes were largely brought about by the ahimsa diet. Prior to embarking on the training, I had admittedly been rather sceptical upon hearing the claims that such a diet could literally transform one’s practise; now, I had no cause to doubt. I had become a believer, and hoped that I could find the willpower to adhere to this diet long after internship period ended.

Once back at the Dharma Yoga Center for the second in-class instalment, I noticed a distinct shift in the group dynamic, particularly within our small teaching groups. There was a quietness and calmness in the atmosphere that everyone worked hard to maintain. I very much appreciated this observation of mouna, as it really did seem to help us to conserve energy and to turn our thoughts inward. At the same time, we became more conscious of the moods and mindsets of our peers. There was an intimacy within our group that developed to the point where words were no longer necessary for communicating. This was most apparent when we were taking turns teaching: we moved in union with each other like a well-rehearsed ballet chorus and remained attentive to one another’s needs by adjusting the level of intensity of the physical practise higher or lower as required. During the feedback sessions, the comments were delivered openly with the utmost respect and care; it was obvious that everyone took this duty very seriously and made their best effort to come up with meaningful remarks. In truth, however, no one should have been worried about receiving a ‘bad review’…every class that was delivered was a veritable gift.

On the whole, everyone seemed significantly more self-assured and relaxed. Evidently we had all benefitted from having those 2 months between the sessions to immerse ourselves in the Dharma Yoga practise, and to apply our knowledge through teaching a few classes. We had come to realise that we could still deliver a class that reflected the Dharma Yoga style, values and traditions, without having to imitate Dharma exactly. This knowledge was very reassuring to me personally, since I now knew that, even if I were to switch over to teaching Dharma Yoga exclusively, I could exercise my creativity to impart a hint of my own flavour to my classes.

The internship period that followed the March session proved to be a very valuable learning experience for me; however, it was not without some difficulties. As experienced during the waiting period between the in-class training modules in New York City, I had to rearrange my already packed schedule to squeeze in an extra 2 hours, minimum, of activity per day related to the daily practise plans. Failure to do so, without incurring noticeable impact to my family, would have been indicative of problems to come, since I also had 36 Dharma Yoga classes and 20 hours of karma yoga to complete; hence, time management was of the essence in order to maintain the balance between these activities, my day job and family life. It was, in my view, a good test in regards to observing the yamas: ahimsa (by helping people to recognise the greatness that lives within them, as well as avoiding the tendency to self-deprecate), satya (by being honest with myself with regards to my availability for all my tasks/activities; I tend to be over-optimistic with regards to time allocation), asteya (by putting my family’s needs at the top of the priority list to ensure that they did not feel deprived of my love and attention), bramacharya (now was the ideal time to apply what we had learned and adhere strictly to our yoga practise, as per Dharma’s direction), and aparigraha (by renouncing my own desires and hobbies and setting higher priority to the needs of others. In addition, I was reminded of the importance to let go of expectations, especially in regards to people’s willingness to explore an unfamiliar style of yoga, and their availability to commit to a regular practise. To illustrate, I had to teach more than the required number of classes for Level 4 certification, to make up for those that did not draw enough students).

The LOAY 500 hr program was, in a nutshell, life-changing. Never could I have anticipated the extent to which my yoga practise would transform. The training program was certainly intense, maybe even gruelling at times. However, now that I have witnessed, through Sri Dharma Mittra’s example, the incredible amount of resolve and faith that is required to become a true yogi, I know enough to recognise that the real challenges lie ahead of me. Who knows how far I will get in his lifetime? I accept that I may never attain self-realisation, but I am most humbled and grateful for having had the opportunity to study with an incredible guru who has worked through his own struggles, and who is undeniably as close as one can possibly get on this earth to become an enlightened being. Armed with the tools that Sri Dharma Mittra and his exceptional staff shared with us, I feel more confident now to set out on my path and embrace my own challenges…

What is Karma Yoga?

Karma Yoga is manifested through the practise of selfless service, and is one of the key components of the Dharma Yoga tradition. Born from the years that Sri Dharma Mittra spent at Yogi Gupta’s ashram, the spirit of giving generously of one’s time and effort appears to have permeated the Dharma Yoga community. Dharma himself performed countless acts of karma yoga as a means of demonstrating his devotion towards his guru.

Today, the practise of karma yoga continues to be prominent amongst Dharma Mittra’s followers, and, in fact, forms an essential part of the Life of a Yogi teacher training programs. The intent is to highlight the importance of devoting the fruits of our labours to a higher purpose; that is, no act should be committed solely for personal gain. The ability to perceive each action as an offering to God reflects the willingness to renounce the ego. Only once we let go of our ego can we conceive of establishing a connection with the Supreme Self.

Karma Yoga helps to rid ourselves of the ego by cultivating humbleness. When we serve others, we are demonstrating our acceptance to lower ourselves. Our station in life is no longer of consequence. This is critical if we are to enter into the full spirit of Karma Yoga.

The significance of selfless service is even highlighted in the ancient sacred texts of yoga. The Bhagavad Gita, for instance, contains several mentions of karma yoga throughout the text:

“Both renunciation and yoga lead to the Highest Good; but of the two, performance of action is superior to renunciation of action.”
[Bhagavad Gita, Ch. 5, verse 2, p. 60]

Further on in the same chapter – entitled ‘The Way of Renunciation’, Lord Krishna reveals the true essence of karma yoga:

“He who works without attachment, resigning his actions to Brahman, is untainted by sin, as a lotus-leaf by water. Only with the body, the mind, the understanding, and the senses do the yogis act, without attachment, for the purification of the heart. A selfless man who has renounced the fruit of his action attains peace, born of steadfastness. But the man who is not selfless and who is led by desire is attached to the fruit and therefore bound.”
[Bhagavad Gita, Ch. 5, verses 10-12, p. 62-63]

The message is therefore clear: practising karma yoga represents one of the methods for attaining self-realisation. However, we must be sincere and steadfast in our efforts in order to advance along our paths; occasional benevolent deeds, executed casually/dismissively, are not sufficient. One must be whole-heartedly immersed in one’s work.

Devoting the fruits of all our labour to a higher purpose demonstrates karma yoga. Small actions can be meaningful, if carried out with reverence and mindfulness. Even offering up our daily asana practise to God as a gesture of love and devotion is a simple yet effective way of preparing ourselves for the higher limbs of yoga. The key is to enter into that widely known mindset that giving is better than receiving, and will ultimately bring us more self-satisfaction. Hence, in becoming ambassadors of generosity and self-sacrifice, we will reap the rewards, through our acquired ability to express compassion towards all beings and recognise the divine nature of each individual. This, in essence, signifies self-realisation, that of which leads to bliss.

“With sacrifice shall you nourish the gods; and may the gods nourish you. Thus nourishing the One Another, you will obtain the Highest Good.”
[Bhagavad Gita, Ch. 3, verses 11 & 12, p. 38]

The above directive from the Lord Krishna to Arjuna reflects what our unwavering intention should be. As we engage deeper in the practise of karma yoga, we eventually cease to perceive our deeds as acts of self-sacrifice; it becomes as natural as any other daily ritual.

On a personal note, my yoga practise has brought about a deep sense of gratitude – not only for all the physiological and mental benefits, but for the opportunities that it has opened up for me, as a practitioner and teacher, to serve the Highest Good. My LOAY teacher training experience has cultivated in me a distinct longing to give something back to a community that has offered me so much; karma yoga represents one way of reciprocating. I feel most honoured to continue rendering loving service to Dharmaji and his worldwide community of followers.



Swami Nikhilananda, The Bhagavad Gita, New York: Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center, 1987.


About Sri Dharma Mittra

Sri Dharma Mittra has spent most of his life in service to humanity, disseminating the ancient knowledge of how to achieve radiant health and spiritual development. He was born in the late 1930’s and has studied Yoga since 1958. After meeting his guru (teacher), Sri Swami Kailashananda, he immersed himself in intense study and practice of the classical eight limbs of Yoga and nine years of dedicated full time practice of Karma Yoga. Sri Swami Kailashananda is known as the first Guru to bring the practice of Hatha Yoga to the west in the early 1950’s. Sri Dharma was accepted and initiated as a sannyasi (one who renounces the world in order to realize God). During these years he had the esteemed honor of being the personal assistant to the Guru attending to all his needs.

Dharma Mittra spent many years as a full-time yogi and brahmachari (celibate religious student who lives with his teacher and devotes himself to the practice of spiritual disciplines). He then began teaching, only for his Guru and with selfless expectation. He was the main demonstrator for the Yoga asanas at the many lectures the Guru gave to the public in the ’60’s and ’70’s. After many years as a celebrated teacher at his guru’s Ashram, Sri Dharma left in 1974 to found the Yoga Asana Center, currently known as Dharma Yoga New York Center.

Sri Dharma was one of the first independent Yoga teachers on the East Coast, initiating hundreds of thousands on the path of Yogic practice and teaching. Dharma Mittra began disseminating this knowledge before “styles” of Yoga became popular, and has remained truthful to the original classical practice. Students from all walks and styles of Yoga love his teachings. Sri Dharma has literally been teaching classes continuously every day since he started in 1967. To this day he still makes himself available regularly to anyone who walks through the doors of the Dharma Yoga Centers in need of help and direction. He is known as “the Rock of Yoga” due to his dedication and fortitude, and also as the “Teacher’s Teacher” for his experience and knowledge. Sri Dharma continues to inspire, enlighten, and reveal the real meaning of Yoga to Yoga teachers and practitioners daily. Sri Dharma writes: “It is my greatest joy to share with students this knowledge that I have acquired in the past 50 years of practice and study. Dharma Yoga practice will give one’s body the power and strength to have resistance to common illnesses and diseases. With proper encouragement and increased faith in the Guru, as one can improve his physical body and mental attitude rapidly, thereby igniting the higher motives of making one’s self useful to himself and all mankind.”

Sri Dharma is a most beloved Yoga Master, known for his humility, humor, joy and kindness in teaching. Every student who comes to his practices is treated “as part of his family.” He diligently teaches the Yamas, the first step of Yoga, as he sets the greatest example for it in his life. In every class you will hear “without the Yama’s, known as the ethical rules, there is no success in Yoga.” He tirelessly promotes ahimsa (nonharming) through vegetarianism, veganism, a live food Yoga diet, and kindness to all living beings, especially our inferior brothers in the animal kingdom.

“When I am in his (Dharma) circle of love and kindness, I could really feel I’m surrounded by huge love of god and mother earth.”

In 1975, Dharma created the Sun Salutation and Yoga Course Chart. This chart includes all hand-done drawings and art work, as well as photographs and two Yoga class programs. In 1984, he completed the Master Yoga Chart of 908 Postures as an offering to his Guru for all Yoga aspirants. This original masterpiece was meticulously assembled from over 1,350 photographs of posture variations he took of himself, all hand crafted before the computer age. Over 300 of these now-popular postures were created by Sri Dharma (though he will say they only “came through” Divine intuition). The poster has been an invaluable teaching tool for decades. It can be found in in just about every Yoga school and Ashram worldwide including in India. The poster was also used as the tool and inspiration for Yoga Journal’s book -Yoga, where he is featured in his headstand series. Dharma Mittra is also the author of 608 Yoga Poses, published by New World Library and featured in American Yoga. HisMaha Sadhana DVD set, containing Level I – A Shortcut to Immortality and Level II – Stairway to Bliss, has been widely acclaimed for its preservation of the main teachings of Yoga. They contain 8 hours of posture practice, breathing teachings, holy discourses, and Kirtan, providing an amazing overview of Sri Dharma’s years of dedicated service to the tradition.